- Public Health
- Communicable Disease
- Sexually Transmitted Infection
Sexually Transmitted Infection
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a condition caused by a change in the balance of different kinds of bacteria in the vagina. When there are symptoms, they often appear as a form of vaginitis - an irritation of the vagina often associated with a vaginal discharge. BV is not always sexually transmitted. However, women who are sexually active run a high risk of developing the condition.
Chlamydia is a type of bacteria. It can cause sterility in women and men. In women, it infects the cervix and can spread to the urethra, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. It can cause bladder infections and serious pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy, and sterility. In men, chlamydia infects the urethra and may spread to the testicles, causing epididymitis, which can cause sterility.
Genital Warts (HPV)
Genital warts, also known as condyloma acuminata, are caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV). There are over 60 kinds of HPV which cause a variety of warts and some types of cancers. Genital warts can occur in the genital and anal area, both inside and outside the body. Sometimes there are no symptoms of infection and people with HPV do not always know they have it.
Gonorrhea is a bacterium that can cause sterility, arthritis, and heart problems. In women, gonorrhea can cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which can result in ectopic pregnancy or sterility. During pregnancy, gonorrhea infections can cause premature labor and stillbirth. To prevent serious eye infections that can be caused by gonorrhea, drops of antibiotics are routinely put into the eyes of newborn babies immediately after delivery. More than 600,000 new cases of gonorrhea are reported every year in the U.S.
Although 90-95 percent of adults with HBV recover completely, the virus can cause severe liver disease and death. Unless they are treated within an hour of birth, 90 percent of the infants born to women with HBV will carry the virus. Pregnant women who may have been exposed to HBV should consider being tested before giving birth so that their babies can be vaccinated at birth or treated if they become ill. Like many other viruses, HBV remains in the body for life.
Herpes is caused by two different, but closely related viruses: Herpes Simplex Virus I and Herpes Simplex Virus II. Herpes I is most commonly associated with relatively common cold sores and fever blisters. Herpes II is more harmful. Both forms of herpes may be sexually transmitted.
HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infections in the United States. HPV is of health importance because persistent infections of high-risk types of HPV can lead to cervical cancer.
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
PID is a progressive infection that harms a woman's reproductive system. PID occurs throughout the pelvic area, in the fallopian tubes, the uterus, the lining of the uterus, and in the ovaries. Treated or untreated, PID can lead to sterility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pain. The more episodes of PID a woman has, the greater are her chances of becoming infertile. PID is not always the result of an STI - but in most cases it is. The sexually transmitted infections that most commonly cause PID are gonorrhea and chlamydia. More than 750,000 new cases of PID are diagnosed every year in the U.S. It is believed that millions of others go undiscovered.
The scabies mite burrows under the skin. It can hardly be seen with the naked eye. It belongs to the same family as the spider. It is usually sexually transmitted. However, school children often pass it to one another through casual contact.
Pubic Lice / Crabs
Every year, millions of people treat themselves for pubic lice. These tiny insects are also called "crabs" or "cooties."
"Trich" is a condition caused by a protozoan - a microscopic, one-cell animal. It is a common cause of vaginal infections. Up to five million Americans develop trichomoniasis every year.
Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are caused by bacteria that have spread from the rectum to the vagina or penis and then to the urethra and bladder. They may be sexually transmitted. UTIs include infections of the bladder — also called cystitis; the ureters — the tubes that lead from the kidneys to the bladder; and the urethra — the tube that carries urine from the bladder to outside of the body. Severe cases, left untreated, may cause kidney infection.
Yeast Infection (Candidiasis, Monilia)
Yeast is a common vaginal infection. A small amount of yeast is part of the balance of normal skin in the vagina, penis and anal areas. Sometimes too many yeast cells grow because the bacteria that keep them in balance have been destroyed. When this happens, we say that there is a yeast “infection" or overgrowth.